Wednesday, March 9, 2011


C.1200 to c.1800 -Assam valley ruled by Ahoms (Tai speakers from Shan state Burma)
1820s- British colonial rules begin in Assam valley
1839 –first armed conflict between arunachal tribes and colonial government
1873 –Inner line regulation demarcates British rule from tribal authority in the hills.
1874 – Arunachal hills incorporated into province of Assam as “unadministered tracts”.
1897 –first official colonial contact in Apatani valley.
1914 – Mc Mohan line drawn between India and Tibet/China
1935 –Act of India makes Arunachal hills as an excluded area.
1940- Semi-permanent government presence in Apatani Valley.
1947 – India Independence
1948 –Apatanis attack government outpost in the valley.
1954 – NEFA (NORTH EAST FRONTIER AGENCY) established to govern the Arunachal hills.
1962 – Chinese invade NEFA: Indian army arrives and stay.
1963 – part of NEFA given to new state of NAGALAND.
1972 – NEFA ends--- and become a union territory of Indian subcontinent.
1970s – Movements ---…
1987 – Arunachal Pradesh gets its name and statehood under India.
1988 – HINDU temple built in hapoli.
1990 –Christian prevails in arunachal—
2003 Christian church built across Apatani valley.
2004- donyi-polo hall built


Tuesday, March 8, 2011



There are no known written records of the history of the Apatani tribes, but throughout their history the Apatani have had a democratic system of running the society.
The first contact with the Europeans occurred in 1897, when British officials came to stay in the valley for two days; six similar brief visits were later held between the 1920s and 1930s. In 1944, after a temporary government outpost was set up by an anthropologist-administrator, the Apatani came in contact with minimal government presence for the first time. When a second, permanent outpost was constructed by the Assam Rifles in 1948, stationed there to protect the land, the Apatanis attacked.


idu mishmi (IGU) english-priest
The Mishmi People are also called as Deng inTibet and are an ethnic group comprising mainly three tribes:
1/Idu Mishmi (Idu Lhoba);
2/Digaro Mishmi (Taraon, Darang Deng), and
3/Miju Mishmi (Kaman Deng).

 The Mishmis occupy the north-eastern tip of the central Arunachal Pradesh/South Tibet in Upper and Lower Dibang Valley, Lohit and Anjaw Districts/Medog County. The three sub-divisions of the tribe emerged due to the geographical distribution, but racially all the three groups are of the same stock. The Idu are also known as Yidu Lhoba in China and often referred as Chulikatas in Assam. The Idus are primarily concentrated in the Upper Dibang Valley district and parts of the northern part of Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Taraon, also called Digaru Mishmis, are distributed in the hill and the foothills between the Digaru and the Lohit rivers.Kamans are also known as the Miju Mishmis, they live between the Lohit and the Kambang rivers in the foothills and in the Mishmi Hills on both sides of the Lohit river right up to the frontiers to Rima.

The Idu Mishmis were the first to come from Burma even thought have been migrating from tibet autonomous parts. They were followed by the ancestors of the Digaru Mishmis a little over 500 years ago. The mijus were the last to migrate from the direction of Hakamti-Long on the Kachin country.
idu mishmi-man-

Galo Nyi

adi/abhor/dhoba or GALO warrior
The Galos constitute a major tribe of Arunachal Pradesh.


Galos before they were counted under ADI subtribes  of Tani ethnicity , but according to the history galo has been as different as other TANI ethnics from the ADI,  The galos were scattered around the central and east south of the Arunachal Pradesh since long time back. They have a nyingchi perfecture as that of tibetan, or lhobas who recide in china, GALO is actually a sub-dialect from the sino-tibetan family whoes origin is bak at the central asia, between xinjiang area og uighurs, tibetans and hans" chinese and galo has no literally any kind of relation but the migration seems to be from loyu/xinjian area--tibet (china) .
Galo constitute of several other more minor sub tribes out which pugo and lare seems majority and other are less in number, the Lodu galo constitute mainly to the northern  part of west siang, along with karka galos to the vicinity, migration of these galos seems from the autonomous part of Tibet periphery .  The sword that they carry is also a kind of Tibetan texture and even the long fur coats.  so according to me there one or other way galo as somekind of relation with the tibetans and other mongolod stocks, and one thing" galos are of Mongoloid stock race"
Than comes the pugo –lare galo , they being the majority in Galos inhabit the lower siang valley and upto the central and to the little north of west siang.  Just like lodu-karka galos even pugo-lare galos have the same track of migration.
              According to the oral stories; there was a massive war broke out between Galos and other tribe and during that time  pugo and lare who were in northern part especially came down the sipu river valley  ,on the other side Lare who were already migrated from upper part of border confined themselves to the lower part of siang, there settlement stretched vastly upto the assam border.
           Galo warriors were very good since ages, even though today due to modernization everything has changed .

This map has been taken from Mark post pdf. of galo dictionary

galo old picture-get together


Galo is a Tibeto-Burman language of the Western Tani branch. It is genetically closest to Nyishi/Nishi, Tagin, Bokar or Lhoba of Tibet, China, Pailibo/Libo, Ramo, Hills Miri and Nah and is to some degree mutually-intelligible with them (depending on the dialects in question). 

However, due to a very long period of close contacts with and frequent bilingualism in the Eastern Tani language Minyong Adi - whose villages directly abut the Galo in several areas - Galo and Minyong languages have to some degree structurally converged. A mistaken belief has thus come about to the effect that Galo is a dialect of Adi language. In fact, although certain Adi and Galo tribespeople are in practice able to converse without great difficulty, this has mostly to do with the specific language experiences of the individuals involved. In their pure forms, Adi and Galo languages are mutually unintelligible and descend from distinct ancestors within opposite branches of the Tani subgroup.

 ** THE NAMING PATTERN OF GALOS  --are the most unique of all TANI ETHNICS and that helps them remeber there forefathers or there ancestors who have been staying.


ADI(LHOBAS-in china)
 The Adi, or Bangni-Bokar Lhoba people is a major collective tribe living in the Himalayan hills of Nyingchi Prefecture, and they are found in the temperate and sub-tropical regions within the districts of East Siang, Upper Siang, West Siang and Dibang Valley. The older term Abor is a deprecated exonym from Assamese meaning 'uncontrol'. Some of them are found in Southern Tibet (a little more north than South Tibet), around areas near the Indian border. The literal meaning of Adi is "hill" or "mountain top".

Tribes and organisation

The Adi live hill villages, each traditionally keeping to itself (many never leave it), under a selected chief styled Gaon Burra (British era development) who moderates the village council, which acts even as traditional court Kebang. The olden day councils consists of all the village elder and decisions were taken in a Dere (Village community house) on majority verdict. The tribes include,


The language spoken by this group is also called Adi, which is distantly related to the Chinese and Tibetan languages. It is spoken with minor variations among all the Adi tribes


Orgnally  as far i know Adis and all other Tani ethnics are usualyy ANIMIST.Today a growing number of Adi, especially among the youth, have converted to Christianity. Adis in Tibet, in particular the Bokars, have adopted Tibetan Buddhism to a certain extent, as a result of Tibetan influence. But in recent few years there was a revival in the faith and the search for indigenousity on the part of the people made it popular with the youth again.

HISTORY BY john pebi tato:

NOTE: forgive me if I am wrong or if there is any kind of spelling mistakes, please.
 HELLO! Folks:  today I am going to write a little brief on ADI history and facts that u may or may not be familiar;
             Long time back people of Adis where called as ABHOR; especially during the colonial period, and also during the reign of the AHOM EMPIRES, the term deliberately denotes barbarous or which is also kind of uncontrolled.
   ADIS where very well good warriors during its history all the time, specially the minyong, milang and padam where known to be very furious.
 Many pictures of  ADI/ABHOR; was taken  by the British  almost during  1912-1940s. But I would like to inform you that  NEFA(now Arunachal Pradesh) had its colonial  touch even before 1900s, Colonial expedition  began almost back  in 18th century too but since there is not must evidence left from those period the history can’t be traceable.  You during those time photographs were not much developed and well processed, British man Simpson took many photographs of east India tribes(NEFA), those were all back in the days of 1820s and was not well developed and not clear, so  the colonial British India had its better photography after 1990s, as Christopher pintey and john falconer  Two British man had shown  with the new technology of photography , the expedition to the hill tribes and photography of NEFA ethnics  and also classifying them and gather the information of  the subcontinent   started. And that’s the time when British came increasingly towards NEFA, although even they had to face many obstacles.
          But to tell you, I have already foretold that the expedition to the hill tribes began  long back in 1800s so i hope now you got it.
Here I will be discussing only about  ABHORS/ADIS,  even though britishers were engaged even with some other tribes.  It was in 1900s  the British was on the move of the expedition towards ADI/ABHOR region, I wont say whole the story but for your knowledge I will give in brief. I am going to the year 1905, Noel Williamson  a  British servant was posted in Sadiya as an   Assistant  political offcer , he had many guides during the expedition, if somewhere Tibetans somewhere ABHOR itself which serve as his guides and potters to the deep jungles  and mountain tracks,  there was many incident breaking out those days like British annihilate the tribal area and its people, case of Apatani incident broke out too before 1905 , well it was in the year 1905 when Political officer  Sir. Noel Williamson had gathered many valuable information from the local people, that in the  1850s there was a furious was between the ADI and British who was led  under  sergeant  Major Carter.  Now it was 1911 that officer Noel Williamson was returning from his travel from upper siang and reached Kebang village very safely and that was the 1st ever successful attempt made by the British to enter into that village since Carter’s time back in 1850s.
  So what happen is that, political officer Williamson was heading to meet the leaders of kebang village, he also knew that ADIs where looking at him very furiously, because he was aware of the war held in past years. He tried to ask permission to enter farther region of ADI/ABHORS, but couldn’t persuade them to give him permission. Very interesting happen this time is that while Williamson was in kebang , the leaders (Minyong people)from Rima village described Williamson as a “war minister”  and told the ADIS that war minister has arrived and was speaking at Kebang, He was tall had round cap made of deer skin, he had attendants too !! so tall like him, had long fur coat of Tibetan texture. He (Williamson) had a moustache; held a spear in his left hand gesticulating  from his right hand”


Noel Williamson was told to move back , the area was too dangerous for him to enter farther. It was n 1911 when noel Williamson was not even near Kebang, and his rations where seemed missing  so he directly accused the ADI  porters who where his guides too, the ADIS already wanted to kill him direct on the spot itself but didn’t. Very big misunderstanding evolved out due to Williamson in that situation, as he sent the MIRI’S (adi-padams) carriers to go back and bring more rations he also gave them letters e to give it to the post office on the way. T he carrier however reportedly showed the official red and black envelopes  to ADIS  and “boasted” that there was an order to punish the villagers of kebang and rotung,rima. The ADI porters who ran away from Williamsons order narrated orally “that Williamson had slapped them and accused” .  By that time 5 ADI attacked Williamson, and it was during this year 1911, political officer Noel Williamson and his partner Dr. Gregoerson was killed.

* ANGLO-ADI WAR-1   :1850s( seargeant  major carter’s period)
*ANGLO-ADI  WAR-2  : 1911 (after murder of noel wiliamson-dr.Gresgoerson)

 A force of nearly 1000 soldiers, military police was sent to find the murderers of Noel Williamson and his attendants. This was a massive response from the British to ABHORS and it can  be remembered as a brutal war between the colonial and ADI people in  history. According to me this war was more deliberate in compare to Anglo-adi war in 1850s under Major Carter.
Abhors/ADIs in a camp -riga village- seeing the british officer major Bower and his troops approaching
  On 18th December  the britishers camped at yambung village not very far from kebang village. On that day ADIS headmen from komsing and riu village came to the camp with a friendly manner and told the Britishers major Bower that the incident was of innocence act, this was termed by the britishers as the courage of ADI people to come and approach the British. This story was published by a British journalist at Calcutta , and  was also told that major genera Bower  believed the story narrated by  the ADI headman. But as I told before the Britishers had to catch the culprits, so there was an incident  that the British army burned down the kebang village, knowing the attack the ADIS  came down from rima-ruksin to repel the attack but they couldn’t  succeed.


ADIS WHO KILLED NOEL WILLIAMSON AND DR. GREGOERSON-  picture showing the murderers captured and chained by the british. Matmur Jamoh accused with the other porters who where involved in killing dr.gregoerson.

Friday, October 8, 2010



TANI ETHNIC TRIBE, when i wrote this what did you understand?? TANI? a ETHNIC TRIBE?
As in the above (heading) i have already gave you a brief information on TANI CLANS. Actually TANI refers to a very important ancestrally for some ethnic tribes in present time, Literally if we try to understand it by the meaning of what the tani people say; it becomes tani=human.  And according to tani ethnic's mythology, they believe that they might have descended from ABO TANI,(abo=father) Which is also their primal ancestor with immense supernatural power. Especially when it comes to spiritual activity,cultivation and harvest,:Abo Tani' plays great role in the folk stories of all the TANI CLANS.
Ethnic tribes: Adi -galo Apatani-Nyishi-Hillsmiri-Tagin- and many others..are those who comes under the TANI CLANS..


Actually there are no written records on this matter, But as we see the same old ethnic tribes whish are still living ,although scattered here and there,,continuously following the same old rituals and traditions and stories of past, this matter is no more a matter. As there is a saying "Past is the key to future" so that is it! we have the same old people, the same old rituals, the same ancient folksong which has deep stories,  so the origin is some how excavated by this. The Tani clan(various indigenous tribe) didn't just evolve out in the plains and hills of Arunachal pradesh (INDIA), there is a specific era and period,  Today the same TANIs are termed as LHOBAS in Loyu (tibet), but it comprises lesser population than that are in South loyu (Arunachal pradesh-INDIA)(Chinese claimed region)

                                       Some Tani groups are called as LHOBAS in tibet(china), Few Lhoba know the Tibetan language. In the past, when there was no writing, the Lhobas kept track of history through telling their descendants and tying knot codes about their past. Their literature also poses a significant influence on their Tibetan counterparts.They are known as Bokar in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India and found in Pidi and Monigong circle of Arunachal Pradesh. They trace their origin from a common forefather, Abotani as foretold,. They follow the genealogy counting from Abotani as Nijum-Jumsi-Siki-Kiyor-Yorkar-Kardung-Duram-Ramdung/Ramgu/Ramgo.All Bokars groups have originated from Ramdung, Ramgo and Ramgu.Their immediate brothers are Galo, Ramo, Libo/Pailibo and Tagin.
  In the early 7th century the area where lhoba(indegineuos tani clans ) was under the Tibet kingdom, it is sure that the origin might have been taken place even before this. As the different civilisation passed,according to it the tribal group who were at that time mostly nomads(Hunters and gatherers) moved from one place to another, some along the river and some along the valleys and others by different path, the emerging civilization was the most upcoming days for the ethnics, and since most of the civilization was in the vicinity of river, the migration took place as per it. Its is sure that small groups from the clans must have migrated in search of living apart from their family or in search of food, and la people migrating in different belt ,1000kms away after 100 -120 years, develop and emerge into new erater they might have reached some other places and settled, and again the same cycle goes on, and the same with there generations now ith modified language, so according to my research the culture and dialects most probably get modified after a gap of 100-120 years or may be just within 60 years, since clans separated from each other and started living in plains and others in hills, the thinking changed with the change in behavior by chronological, dynamic paradigm shift of the clans, and it has been going on till now! even though the origin is the same.
It is not currently known whether modern-day "Lhoba" peoples in fact inhabited Luoyu at the time of Tibetan conquest, nor whether languages spoken by modern-day "Lhoba" peoples are indigenous to this region or not. While most Tani tribespeople living in modern-day Arunachal Pradesh point to a traditional homeland in or around this region [11], there is currently no independent means of verification
river yalung

 *The picture which you see is of river yalung(china) and now you can aslo see the country boundaries, just see:: and think about the civilation developed there along the river basin and later migration.

* One of oldest civilisation, namely yangszte river valley civilation (china) reflects the origin and evolution of various mongoloid groups, and also along with it's tributaries various small settlement began to rise which led to continuosly migration along the river basins and finally reached to new environment and began to adapt according to that place,it's temperature,it's different seasons, and all these difference led to change in culture and change the way of ethnics festival according to variation of season, so i want to say is that according to change in various aspects and adaptation the culture was being modified time after time,thus the same ethnic group beonging to same origin,due to changes with time and space had been modified. Modified in the sense in many things. It may be there way of celebrating,way of dressing sense.,weapons and yes! even the way of speaking is modified specifically.
However the migration of the present day might have been from more than 2000 years ago.

Tani branch usually speak Tibeto-Burman dialects of Sino-tibetan family.All the various tribe under TANI CLANS are some how and somewhere similar. (please check the links for more info:located on ur right side).
you ccan check yourself for it, by the links.


 Before moving forward: what do you undesrtand when i wrote culture: so firstly you should understand it, especially when we are analysing facts on some research or anything.
"Culture"refers to the cumulative deposits of knowledge,experiance,beliefs, values,attitudes,meaning, hierarchies,religion, notions of times,roles.spatial relations,concept of the universe and material objects and possessions acquired by group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving.

(more details ..will be given soon)